# Safe martingale strategy

safe martingale strategy So if the ball lands on black, it seems reasonable to double up . The strategy insists that gamblers double each losing wager until they finally land a winning bet. There is a limit to how long you can keep doubling up without running out of money. Capital management is to keep your account safe and grow steadily. Jul 14, 2016 · Greetings, There is so many different opinion about using martingale. You need a large enough capital to use the Martingale strategy in any situation such as gambling, forex trading, etc. But there are still many traders who are curious about the performance of this strategy. Sep 15, 2015 · Okay dudes, im gonna share a strategy: suppose i have a trading system that when gives a 1/1 risk/reward signal, can win at least 20% of the times (for example: BUY TP: 20 points and SL: 20 points) these are all scenarios we have when receive signals: Win. It all depends on your desire and appetite for risk only. One school of thought says that if you are only willing to risk 20% of your portfolio then don't expect to gain more than this. The most of them think that the strategy implies trading without stop-losses. If you are using bots, you might experience that the bots take martingale steps after trade loss. 05 depending on broker. For this reason, the method has been applied to casino games including blackjack. The idea is limiting the overall losses. Players will then bet AGAINST that streak based on the theory, the longer the streak, the more likely the . Understand the basics of the Martingale System, one of the most popular roulette strategies in the Singapore online casino scene. This discipline requires you increase your trade amount for each consecutive trade. It is a negative flow strategy increasing bets because previous bets have lost. Within the game of roulette, one system stands tall as the go to for players looking for an easy to understand, straightforward, winning strategy. สรุปหนังสือ 31 เคล็ดลับการเทรดเพื่อเอาชนะตลาดอย่างยั่งยืน (Robust Trading System). The idea is to limit the progression of the bet to 3 consecutive games, then resume playing with the lowest bid possible. Martingale Strategy – This tactic is a very popular dice strategy that allows you to bet the same amount if you win, and keep betting double if you lose. If you lose, it would be a reasonable loss. The Martingale betting strategy is one of the oldest wagering techniques and it proves highly effective for most short-term wagering sessions. If your preferred forex robot fails to take appropriate on-time action, your high-risk trading strategy would badly suffer. It does this by “doubling exposure” on losing trades. Oct 11, 2020 · Even if you lose continuously, you should not be discouraged. Martingale is a simple double up betting system that originated in France sometime in the 18th century. The idea is to try and cover all previous losses with a winning trade. The theory is that when you eventually do win, you’ll win back everything you have lost and the value of your original stake. Ignore pairs like GBPJPY, EURNZD, and GBPAUD. Let’s break down some numbers for the Martingale Strategy, including what the risk/reward actually looks like in practice. Read customer experiences, try to make sure the site you're playing on is 100% safe. ProFXManager said: also "reversion to the mean" (stocks) is not possible in forex, pairs like gbpjpy have a max pips range of 13. Using the Martingale on More Difficult Bets. It’s not a strategy, it’s not a decent money management. In simple words: martingale is when the price goes down and . The Martingale System originated in France during the 18th Century and is today still very popular. Nov 04, 2018 · The revised variations of Martingale strategy: limited Martingale, Martingale on totals, which of the variations are profitable, and an online calculator to calculate stake amounts when betting on sport events with Martingale strategy. Once achieved the bet amount returns to the lowest betting limit and it increases again until another win is achieved. We are presenting some of them, and you can choose which one suits you the best. Arguably, a player can recoup all their losses by placing large bets should luck turn to their side. Safe Martingale Strategy Forex, how to make money on free websites, live forex news video, connors bollinger bands 2 year ago Trade binary options on a wide range of web and mobile apps. Also, it might sound very disturbing, but the whole Martingale progression system is all about doubling your losing position. The system works that while winning you place a normal bet, but when you lose a bet, the next bet should be increased to recover your loss and get your fund back . Jan 14, 2021 · The Grand Martingale strategy, aka Great Martingale or Rothstein system, offers an alternative to the classic form. Some of these strategies can even ruin your bankroll, such as the Martingale when you go on a cold streak. Sep 23, 2019 · THE MARTINGALE STRATEGY IN ACTION. You can schedule a free call with our expert trader that will help you find the best way to achieve your financial goals. We all know martingale could be very profitable, but also very dangerous to the trading account. That's why this strategy is much safer. With regard to money management, I'll use the Martingale Strategie on IQ option platform. No matter how experienced you’re as a trader, a wrong robot selection can literally ruin your efforts. [1] [2] The simplest of these strategies was designed for a game in which the gambler wins his stake if a coin comes up heads and loses it if the coin comes up tails. . That is not necessarily so. Apr 05, 2021 · Although the martingale trading strategy is an extreme trading strategy. com) Ask any novice gambler that’s read a smattering of gambling strategy which betting method is best for ensuring a . Its mathematical principles are sound as can be, and the strategy is logical and sensical enough that make them easily applicable to many casino games. It isn’t good to just dive into games like Roulette and Blackjack without having a plan. If you are looking for a safe, no loss, Forex martingale strategy that works, it could be a tricky pursuit. Jan 15, 2019 · Martingale Trading Strategy: A Conclusion. If you would like to know more about a safe martingale system, head over to https://roulettecalculators. Apr 19, 2010 · So the Martingale does not get out of hand. Apr 24, 2018 · Avoid News time: Most of the martingale strategy blow accounts at the news time. Its essence is in increasing the stakes every time you lose. It is derived from the idea that when flipping a coin if you choose heads over and over, you will eventually be right. It is considered a risky method of investing. Since this system is so popular, bettors have developed some variations that can apply to sports betting. The system was designed to help the punter build up his gambling fund while winning. There are lots of Martingale system success stories on the internet. It prevents you from doubling your stake, which . Reverse Martingale system. In other words, you go back to the original bet amount after losing a certain amount of rounds. In trading with binary options, the probability of profit to loss is 1 to 1. Put false € on Red, Black, Odd . Stick to the Martingale plan until you win. But there are a few important caveats to make it work. Let me explain. Nov 20, 2018 · The Martingale betting strategy originated in 18th century France and quickly became the favorite strategy of casino goers. Take a look at our list of safe UK roulette sites if you wish to find a suitable online gambling operator to play for real. The Martingale system is the simplest one to understand and use. However, even so, you still need to establish your break or walkaway point, whereby you determine how much is an acceptable loss. It is for players who like the simplicity of the original but would like to win more than a single unit. The strategy crumbles if you run into a string of losing trades. Apr 28, 2020 · In this post, we will address the math behind one of the most renown strategies in roulette — the Martingale Gambling Strategy. Eventually, you should win, if the cost of doubling your bets does not exceed the table maximum. This is more of a money management method than a trading strategy, and you use it with many different systems or methods The Martingale Strategy profits unlimited scam is a . Thus, we have successfully simulated the martingale gambling strategy in roulette, and understood its performances/returns in an ideal environment with infinite funds, as compared to a realistic environment with finite funds. Many traders successfully use this strategy for waiting and making a profit. Each simulation was a session of 1000 rounds with basic bet + additional rounds, so players either . Read previous part “Safe martingale and manual trading (Part 1)” here>> …How it will look like in practice? Imagine that your strategy implies 10 points stop-loss and 20 points take-profit. There’s also bank transfer as a withdrawal option, but […] May 27, 2017 · Algorithm, or Martingale strategy, found its supporters and fans in the financial world. This strategy works is closely connected with the theory of probability, it is assumed that the trader or the player can not always enter only losing trades, luck sooner or later will still turn to face him. Dec 01, 2020 · The strategy itself is very simple – and easy to apply. Jun 24, 2020 · After understanding what Martingale is, the condition for you to use this method is a lot of money and a reasonable betting system. Avoid Volatile Pair: The more volatile the pair, the more is the risk. But if you try to use the Martingale trading strategy manually. 2. Loss - Win. With a simple betting strategy of picking just black or red, then doubling up if you lose, it appears that using the Martingale system at the roulette table is a pretty good way to win. Loss - Loss - Win. Martingale betting strategies are still risky, there will always be a little chance to loose all your bankroll. And the martingale steps risk the entire capital of your account. The theory this strategy relies on is that once a trade is closed, there is a 50% chance it will “go” in our direction. Loss - Loss - Loss - Win. Mar 04, 2018 · A is a martingale strategy This strategy is known in the world of Forex trading as Martingale, and Martingale was practiced most often in gambling in the casinos of Las Vegas casinos, which is the main reason that casinos now have minimum and maximum bets, where the roulette wheel has two signs Green (0 and 00), in addition to individual bets, the problem with this strategy is that in order to . Betting options with a probability of 50-50 percent will best-fit Martingale’s strategy. trading martingale strategy As a rule, the Martingale is used in automated trading strategies trading martingale strategy (grid expert advisors), because the approach of trading counts on the opening of a large number of orders, which is difficult to do manually I did use martingale . 2. Avoid over-trading: Don’t leave martingale to run forever. Nov 02, 2017 · This Martingale strategy can be implemented through a series of closed positions that have gone against you, or by averaging within an open position. With the Triple Rebound strategy, the capital management method you should use is the Martingale. Jun 30, 2016 · The Martingale (Strategy B) and Fibonacci(Strategy E) betting systems also start strongly, but any big sequence of losses quickly increases the required stake. In addition, the Martingale system is also considered an appropriate strategy for both experts and beginners. The first bet puts $10 at risk. The Martingale Betting Strategy The Martingale betting system is one of the most popular ways to bet in any gambling game, from roulette , over baccarat, to blackjack. I’m currently up $4000 in online blackjack. For Fibonacci, that probability is still over half. Aug 20, 2021 · Forex martingale strategy that works 100% exists only in theory. ok friends here you go the safe martingale EA (Forex Grid Trade - Slightly Modified_Krish) i have used before but nowadays i got my mind in manual trading its really boose you know lol. Mar 20, 2021 · Read customer experiences, try to make sure the site you're playing on is 100% safe This calculator can be used to create strategies for playing dice like a stake, is the value you multiply the basic bet for each loss such as 2 for martingale, bet Payment: This is used to calculate odds. If workers profit on odd number of moneys then there are fifty percent chances of winning money you invest on the profit. Here, you increase your bet (usually by twice the previous bet) after a win. The general results of the Martingale strategy are small wins most of the time, with an infrequent catastrophic loss. " This is the Martingale strategy based on the conventional theory of probability. The financial markets can provide an option that has existed since the 18th century and whose effectiveness has literally been "tested by time. I will agree again with you, martingale as a strategy is a bankroll suicide. Every trader, novice or professional, dreams of a trading strategy that could bring 100% profit. The Martingale system was introduced by French mathematician Paul Pierre Levy in the 18th century. Discover the Most Popular Strategy Systems used in Blackjack. Jun 18, 2015 · Martingale Betting Strategy One strategy is known as a martingale strategy. It is the same strategy we use on this EA with added Hedging, Max level martingale to choose and Margin management control. Originally, Martingale referred to a class of betting strategy that was popular in 18th-century France. This results in lowering of your average entry price. Feb 18, 2017 · The only bankroll management strategy that you need in sports betting is the one that I discussed in point #3. Your long-term expected return is still exactly the same. Mini Martingale strategy is the variation which can help you avoid huge losses. Sep 13, 2021 · How to open a DOWN trade with the strategy Capital mangement. In our case let’s increase the lot size by 50%: The strategic Martingale betting strategy starts off with wagering a small base amount that gamblers can afford to wager and it adjusts from there depending on whether the wager is successful or not. com and check out the forum or simply play around with our calculators. In comparison to other negative progression strategies like the Fibonacci and D'Albembert strategies. Martingale Roulette – The Number One System. Jul 15, 2021 · Martingale Strategy Forex. M artingale strategy is one of the most famous Forex strategies in the world!But many traders and especially professional traders don’t agree with this strategy. Conclusion. Therefore, we are not looking for an advantage in . The strategy is based on the well-known psychological fallacy, according to which the probability of winning after losing increases. Oct 09, 2020 · The martingale betting strategy has also been applied and used on the roulette wheel as it also has a near 50% winning percentage with red or black excluding green zeros. My first bet is 0,50 units and the worst streak i had was until 4 (0,5 , 1 , 2 , 4) . Please share your experience, how to trade safely or as safe as possible, using martingale method. The strategy involves doubling up the bet amount until a winning round is achieved. This is a low-risk martingale strategy baccarat method. The idea is to bet more after a loss, usually twice the amount of a previous bet. Here's the concept: Right at the initial launch, the EA will create buy/sell order with minimal lots (0. The Martingale System for blackjack is premised on a player starting with a low entry bet which is then doubled every time a player encounters a loss. Each time the gambler places a winning bet, they should place the base bet the next round . The benefit of using this type of system is a guarantee of 100% efficiency as long as we have endless cash flow. Forecasting the risk of losing money and making profits has become much easier. This type of system is based on the idea that you will double your bet after losing trades and—in theory—you will always cover your losses with winning bets that are double the amount of the losing bet. With its popularity rising, scientists and mathematicians showed interest in it. . Use provably fair based sites to bet with a strategy. In a Martingale system, you take advantage of this truth by . Roulette players using the Martingale strategy lookout for a streak of at least six Reds or Blacks. So let’s take a look at why the Martingale roulette strategy is considered extremely risky, particularly by those advanced roulette players and professionals. Jun 29, 2021 · The Martingale strategy is the most popular and most commonly used roulette strategy in casinos, whether you gamble online (for which we suggest that you check out those that are best-rated at TopCasinoExpert. The Labouchere strategy is based on the numerical sequence 1-2-3-4-5. ok here is conditions. Keys to the safe martingale Usage of stop-losses in trading. Martingale originates from the 17th century in France when the rampant upper class gambled with astonishing sums of money. It is one of the oldest Blackjack strategies and has been used by many casino players for a long time. This famous blackjack betting strategy is based on the idea that you will double your bets when losing and return to your initial betting unit when you finally win. 3-Step Reverse Martingale. Though the coin may land on tails 2 or 3 or 10 times in a row, it MUST eventually land on heads. We start by using the sum of the first and last numbers of the sequence as the first bet. You can multiply the lot size by 2, 3 times or by 30%. However, the system guarantees at least a win on 5 consecutive trades with a stop loss of 20 pips and a take-profit of 20 pips that uses the following sequence of lot sizes proportional to L = (1,2,4,8,16) can be called the “Lossless . Once you identify a true candle, you should trade the next candle (s) that form after it. A strategy where you could lose all the money in your portfolio is a dangerous strategy and should be avoided. The Grand Martingale system offers an even higher risk but a more reasonable win per ended streak. Unfortunately, this is at the expense of one large loss. If you like this video, Safe Martingale System for Roulette, give us a thumbs up. Feb 11, 2021 · With the Martingale Roulette strategy, there is one simple rule in place: double your bet every time you lose. The strategy had the gambler double his bet after every loss so that the first win would recover all previous losses plus win a profit equal to the original stake. 500 pips in the last 10 years, you need big balls and unlimited equity to get (back) the "mean . In the first case there is a real loss and the next time the volume is doubled. The Martingale betting system allows you to quickly return the lost money after a series of failures. org The Martingale Strategy is a strategy of investing or betting introduced by French mathematician Paul Pierre Levy. It is a system based on statistics and probabilities, de facto “rigid,” which always assumes a 50% chance of winning trade. To keep safe of your investment, you need to use fewer martingale steps and safeguard against consecutive losses in a row. Oct 05, 2017 · Simulation of the Reverse Martingale strategy. However, a sense of urgency tends to begin when a run of ten consecutive same colour outcomes is seen. This system asks the player to pick a reasonable number of rounds to lose. It is for some reason believed that the lot size should be always doubled, if the martingale is used. I'll enter into 6 trades before closing my trading session. Blackjack is a game of skill for which a strategy is necessary. The Martingale betting technique can be summed up as a method of playing against losses without capitalizing on wins. How to Play it Safe? Aug 14, 2021 · Safe Martingale Strategy PDF. The system is designed to help players make a profit by doubling their bets after every loss. Aug 31, 2021 · The Martingale strategy therefore aims to double the trade size after a loss in order to eventually recover once your trade does succeed. In practice, though, you would need to have infinite funds and no limits on the bets you can place for it to work. If you got any issue with a site we're listed, please let us know. Aug 20, 2021 · A Summary of the Forex Martingale Strategy that Works. SAFE Martingale Money Management Method (modified) This lesson assumes that you understand your financial goals and are familiar with all the risks and opportunities online trading provides. All Martingale has really achieved is a change in the distribution of risks. American consumers seek a safe, diverse, and abundant food supply that is simultaneously affordable and available throughout the year. Nearly three-quarters of the time, a bettor following Martingale can expect to be out of the game before 500 wagers have been placed. Let’s use NFL betting for this example, showing how one would actually apply the Martingale Strategy at a sportsbook. The thing is, however, that life does not occur in a vacuum. It’s gambling. There’s a good chance they’re either marketing ploys by online casinos, or they are stories written by lucky roulette players who won in spite of the Martingale system and not because of it. I have won obscene amounts of money with this system that would not have been otherwise possible. Dec 12, 2016 · Martingale (Martingale) - money management, cash or investments in which, after the receipt of the amount of investment losses is increasing. If your capital is not suitable for following the Martingale strategy, you should choose your stop. Dec 05, 2013 · Martingale is a cost-averaging strategy. Learn more about it here. Jun 02, 2020 · How the Martingale Betting Strategy Works. Let’s consider a commonly encountered mistake made by traders, whose strategy is based on the martingale approach. Aug 01, 2021 · Martingale strategy variations. So it’s better to stop trading at-least 1 day before any major fundamental news. I made the simulations on a 96 % RTP medium variance slot with a $50 maximum bet per round. But this doesn't matter cause people can do initial 10 lots if they want to). While the Martingale strategy is widely used among dice bettors, some use the other way around: the Reverse Martingale. In fact, as long as gamblers have a large enough bankroll, and a high enough betting limit, they are likely to come away with wins quite often when using the betting strategy. The Mini Martingale is a variation of the classic strategy that is associated with setting some limits on the amount of double-up bets. If you find a good trade run it once, get some profits and stop. Martingale system roulette is a progressive betting strategy and is applicable in games that have 2 possible outcomes. Nov 18, 2015 · Martingale Strategy. Initially used in casinos, Martingale betting strategy has proved to be . The essence of this strategy lies in the bettor starting every session by placing a bet on black (or red, however, this must remain consistent, since red and black are even money bets). While many people tend to use Martingale on even chance bets, the system has never been limited to it. Dec 07, 2011 · Martingale strategies theoretically remove that problem by ensuring that a strategy always comes out on top. Dec 14, 2020 · The Martingale Strategy is a tantalising betting system, for good reason, and in a vacuum, it works to a tee. Dec 30, 2020 · The untraditional Martingales are even worse! If you must allow yourself the Martingale then stick to the original. To help meet these consumer demands, the United States . Does Martingale Strategy Work for Roulette The Martingale Strategy. 5. Suppose that the 1st time you bet $1 and lose. The Martingale system is maybe the simplest betting system ever devised, and it is also a successful one – at least in theory. Whereas when a bet is lost, you reduce your next bet for lesser loss in case your next roll doesn’t favor you. They think and trying about how to make this martingale strategy as a safe strategy. Martingale is a very popular trading system based on increasing positions after losing trades and adjusting positions downwards after profitable trades. The concept behind it is quite simple – you increase the bet after each loss, so when you win in the end . Feb 06, 2015 · 3. Here's a simple example to show you why the Martingale Roulette strategy can prove ineffective (and quite expensive): • Bet $10 – LOSE Trading Martingale Strategy. The important thing to know about Martingale is that it doesn’t increase your odds of winning. Your robot will assess a wide-range of factors, and then make a prediction on how the assets price will move, saying: Call (up) if it believes the price will rise and Put (down), if it believes the price will fall. Take them with a pinch of salt. Aug 14, 2021 · Safe Martingale Strategy PDF. The Binary Option Robot Will Forex Safe Martingale Strategy Predict the Price Movement. See full list on roulettesites. One of the advantages of the Martingale roulette system is that it’s incredibly easy to understand. By doing so, we can make ourselves safe from huge losses. The D'Alembert roulette betting system works similarly, but the differences in wagered amounts are much smaller. Oct 29, 2020 · The idea of Martingale is not a trading logic, but a math logic. com) or at land-based casinos. If you win in any order, return to the original amount of the first one. It can be used for sports betting – but also classic forms of gambling, regardless of whether gambling is online or not. We will also explore the pros and cons, so you can judge for yourself if it’s the best online roulette strategy for you. This one win will then be enough to recover all losses plus reclaim the initial bet. The Martingale system is maybe the most famous result of their activity. This is a system of negative progression, but it gives players the opportunity to streamline their game and not lose large sums of . This is regarded as a serious advantage of this variation of the original betting strategy, because it helps them by preventing them from losing a lot of money. Oct 23, 2020 · Running Martingale Adjustment and Use — Keep it Safe! Posted on October 23, 2020 by Dennis Moreland Tack Running martingales help a horse learn to carry its head in the position that will allow it to use its body to drive from behind and with collection. Dec 17, 2014 · Because the ones you've shown make it less safe than the normal martingale, which itself is horrible in terms of safety. In this article we will show you how the Martingale roulette strategy works. Martingale strategy. You have find out that the average number of losing trades in one series made under your strategy equals 3. If you have never heard about this dice winning strategy , it goes something like this: the player chooses his odds that will double his money if he wins. The main problem about this roulette strategy is the danger that the player runs out of money really quickly, especially after only a few rounds. The Martingale Roulette Strategy. I bet after 5-6 times after the same color comes to the table. Choose your stop. A chance comes once an hour or two but i had no loss so far. You can’t beat sports betting through manipulating wagers – you can only win through skill and research. While this strategy can get a gambler back to even early on in a betting sequence it also presents the risk of ruin for a large sequence of losses on bets. In our simulation of betting online, we lost 11 times in a row at round 83. However, stop-losses can and must be used. Jan 01, 2020 · The strategy we are going to deal with in this article is the Martingale. In the second case, there is an unrealised loss and a volume is added to the open position. To be fair, the Martingale trading strategy is not very popular in the financial market. How to use this strategy? The easy way of using the martingale strategy is that if the worker profits money on even numbers not odd then there are many chances of winning the profit. Dangers of The Martingale. Aug 20, 2021 · Martingale strategy is all about “double or nothing,” which is an expression you have probably heard at a gambling table. The Martingale system has been used for over two centuries and continues to be the most popular roulette strategy choice for players. Advised to use it on cents account with 1000$ you can use starting lotsize . Let’s say your standard bet is $100 on NFL games. 01 or 0. How to Play it Safe? Aug 20, 2021 · A Summary of the Forex Martingale Strategy that Works. It is based on the theory of increasing the amount allocated for investments, even if its value is falling, in expectation of a future increase. Under Jean-Marie’s leadership the party sparked outrage for hate speech, function of a slot machine we activated the bonus round 4 times. We either win $10 or we lose $10. Dec 08, 2017 · Both Martingale and Fibonacci strategies work by increasing or decreasing the wagered amount depending on the result of the individual spins. By increasing the bet amount after each losing round, the next winning round will cover the past losses. To play safe, you should choose the maximum number of consecutive losses allowed each time you play Martingale. These losses completely wiped out both Fibonacci and Martingale’s stakes. How safe is gambling? Using Martingale, you will simply double up every time you lose in order to cover previous losses. Apr 28, 2020 · This in part can be explained by the strategy of resetting to the initial bet on winning a session. Apr 13, 2015 · Roulette is a favourite of those that use Martingale(source: OnlineMoney Spy. How do gambling casinos make money? A Dupes primary job will always be their highest leveled skill, others delve further by providing deposit-free bonuses. May 27, 2017 · Algorithm, or Martingale strategy, found its supporters and fans in the financial world. (read more about ip option strategy Leverage in forex) Keys to the safe martingale Usage of stop-losses in trading. Feb 22, 2016 · The Martingale strategy has increased the number of times we can expect to make a profit, relative to a level staking strategy, from an individual play, in this example from 4 to 5. In effect, all you need to do is double the size of your previous bet until you win. Keys to the safe martingale Usage of stop-losses in trading. Martingale System. Let’s do an example where the value of winning and losing is identical. The following tables show the results of a million player simulation using the Reverse Martingale strategy. The same goes for the reverse Martingale strategy. Aug 18, 2017 · Sadly, neither staking plan offers the bettor a safe betting experience. Mar 03, 2019 · Dangers of Martingale with EAs. Pairs: EURUSD , NZDUSD, EURGBP. If you want to keep things on the safe side, we recommend using the 3-Step Reverse Martingale approach. After all, betting on, say, red at the roulette table gives you a roughly 50% chance of winning. Here I want explain this strategy and give you good idea to understand how and when use this strategy to earn profit. However, when not used in bets like red or black, odd or even, and 1-18 or 19-36, the player won’t be able to cover much of the table to potentially get profit. The Basics of Martingale Strategy. You can check out the table to see how the method works in theory. safe martingale strategy